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An important collector of such early traditions was , a relative of ʿĀʾishah who was probably born in 643–644 and who is plausibly viewed as having had firsthand access to former companions of the Prophet.
Moreover, a number of rudimentary details about Muhammad are confirmed by non-Islamic sources dating from the first decades after Muhammad’s traditional date of death.
This is not to suggest that there was necessarily an element of deliberate fabrication at work, at least at the level of a compiler like Ibn Isḥāq, who was clearly not inventing stories from scratch.
Nonetheless, some accretion of popular legend around a figure as seminal as Muhammad would be entirely expected.
Thus, statements of the sort that on March 21 of the year 625, Meccan forces entered the of Medina are inherently problematic.
After failing to win protection in the nearby town of Al-Ṭāʾif, Muhammad secures a pledge of protection from a representative number of the inhabitants of the oasis town of Yathrib, also known as , Muhammad is the last to depart.yields little concrete biographical information about the Islamic Prophet: it addresses an individual “messenger of God,” whom a number of verses call Muhammad (e.g., 4), and speaks of a pilgrimage sanctuary that is associated with the “valley of Mecca” and the (e.g., , 60) after having previously been ousted by their unbelieving foes, presumably from the Meccan sanctuary (e.g., 1).Other passages mention military encounters between Muhammad’s followers and the unbelievers.At the age of six Muhammad also loses his mother Āminah, and at eight he loses his grandfather.Thereupon responsibility for Muhammad is assumed by the new head of the clan of , to oversee the transportation of her merchandise to Syria. Khadījah is said to have been about 40, but she bears Muhammad at least two sons, who die young, and four daughters.